Both preterm birth and postterm gestation are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy events. In particular, prematurity and its complications are the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 years and can cause long-term health problems. The economic burden of preterm birth is also substantial. Any new knowledge on the mechanisms involved in the onset of labor will directly impact the understanding of parturition and therefore the therapeutic strategies related to childbirth complications. Parturition is currently described as an inflammatory process. Yet the mechanisms that trigger this inflammation remain largely unknown and there are still major knowledge gaps about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that synchronize the childbirth timing. We and others have led to reconsider the importance of cellular and molecular interactions at the maternal-fetal interface constituted by chorion, the outermost layer of the fetal membranes, and decidua, the lining of the uterus during pregnancy. Our aim is to uncover new pathways related to the onset of labor that will be testable by pharmacological or molecular tools.